< >

Glossary

This section offers a reference dictionary containing the most significant and commonly used terms in the sector.

Buttermilk
Residual product (may even be acid or acidified) of the processing of milk or cream into butter (by continuous churning and separation of the solid fats). Buttermilk with additives must be included in drinks with a milk base.
Buttermilk powder
Powder product made from buttermilk.
Controlled Designation of Origin (DOC)
Recognition of quality attributed to wines produced in specific areas (usually small/medium sized), bearing their geographic name. Usually, the name of the grape variety follows the Doc designation and production regulations are strict. These wines may only be put on the market after rigorous chemical and sensory analyses. (Italian Law 164/92)
Controlled and Guaranteed Designation of Origin (DOCG)
Recognition of a particular quality attributed to some DOC wines of national and international standing. These wines undergo very strict controls and must be put on the market in bottles of less than five litres, with an official seal guaranteeing the origin, quality and indicating the number of bottles produced. (Italian Law 164/92)
Cream milk powder
Milk powder with a milk fat content of not less than 42 % by weight of the product.
Curd
Curd is a dairy product obtained, during the cheese manufacturing process, by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an other edible acidic substance and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey) but retaining the fat component.
Lactalbumin
One of the main components of whey protein.
Lactose
Milk sugar.
Milk whey
By-product obtained during the manufacture of cheese or casein. In the liquid state, whey contains natural constituents (on average 4,8 % lactose, 0,8 % protein and 0,2 % fats by weight of the product) which remain when the casein and the majority of the fat have been removed from the milk. Whey delivered in liquid state is used mainly for animal feeds. Quantities used as raw materials for other processes must be excluded.
Other Powder Products
Curdled milk and cream, kephir and other fermented or acidified milk and cream, whether or not containing added sugar or other sweetening matter or flavoured or containing added fruit or cocoa. Also includes mixtures of powdered cream, milk, buttermilk and/or whey. Also includes protein-based powdered products.
Partly Skimmed-Milk Powder
Milk powder with a milk fat content of more than 1,5 % and less than 26 % by weight of the product.
Powdered Dairy Products
Product obtained by eliminating water from cream, whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, skimmed milk, buttermilk and acidified milk. Also includes additives to the raw material before the product is made into powder. Also includes milk powder manufactured in dairies and contained in powders for infants and in animal feeds.
Protected Designation of Origin (PDO)
Recognition attributed to agricultural products and foodstuffs, where stages of the production process take place in a specific geographic area and the production process conforms to production regulations. These characteristics are essentially or exclusively due to a particular geographical environment with its inherent natural and human factors. (REGULATION (EU) No 1151/2012).
Protected Geographical Indication (PGI)
The Term "PGI" refers to the name of a region, a specific place or, in exceptional cases, a country used to describe an agricultural product or a foodstuff:
  • originating in that region, specific place or country, and
  • which possesses a specific quality, reputation or other characteristics attributable to that geographical origin and the production and/or processing and/or preparation of which take place in the defined geographical area.
PGIs are regulated by teh REGULATION (EU) No 1151/2012.
Quality Wines Produced in a specified Region (VQPRD)
This designation indicates quality wines pursuant to EEC regulation 823/87 and amended by the EC regulation 1622/2000 which provides a general regulatory framework for various national laws existing before the regulation came into force. In Italy DOC and DOCG wines are classified as VQPRD (Quality wines produced in a specified reason).
Skimmed-milk powder (SMP)
Milk powder with a maximum milk fat content of 1,5 % by weight of the product.
Spot Milk
The spot milk is intended to be bulk milk (mainly in the form of cooling milk i.e +4° centigrades) in tank weekly traded without any annual or long-term contract.
Traditional products
This term refers to agricultural products and foodstuffs with consolidated production, preservation and maturing methods that are uniform throughout the area involved and are based on traditional regulations, which have been in use for at least twenty-five years. (Italian Ministerial decree 18 July 2000)
Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG)
Recognition pursuant to EC regulation 2082/92, designating the specific character of an agricultural product or foodstuff, meaning the feature or set of features which distinguish one product or foodstuff from other similar products or foodstuffs. The designation therefore refers to products obtained using typical, traditional production from a specific geographic area, in order to protect its specific nature. The designation does not include products whose specific character has a geographic link and this feature sets apart TSG from PDO and PGI designations.
Typical Geographical Indication (IGT)
Recognition of quality attributed to wines characterised by larger production areas and far less stringent production regulations. Other attributes may also be mentioned, such as the grape variety. IGT wines are equivalent to the French Vin de Pays and German Landwein. (Italian Law 164/92)
Typical products
This term, which designates an all-encompassing value, refers to:
  • PDO and PGI products;
  • DOC, DOCG and IGT wines;
  • traditional agricultural products and foodstuffs;
  • products worthy of EU recognition, which are produced using raw materials of particular value.
Whole milk powder (WMP)
Milk powder with a milk fat content of not less than 26 % and less than 42 % by weight of the product.
back to top