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US: dairy sector

This page contains data regarding key components of the United States dairy industry over a given time period.

The purpose of this report is two-fold:

  • on the one hand, it highlights the complexity of the industry, which should be considered from several viewpoints:
    the commodities area, the variety of dairy derivatives, imports, exports and domestic consumption;

  • on the other hand, it exemplifies the framework of a market that equates large domestic consumption figures (supported by import volumes) to large production figures.

US: DAIRY SECTOR
  x 1.000 ton
RAW MATERIAL AREA 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Farms ('000) 2.023 1.993 1.960 1.901
Number of cows ('000 head) 9.347 9.442 9.386 9.405 8.874 8.922 +0,5% Jan-Dec 2023
Cow's milk production 99.084 101.292 102.646 102.702 102.702 102.678 0,0% Jan-Dec 2023
± % Over the same period of the previous year +2,2% +1,3% +0,1%
Farm-gate milk price € x 100 Kg ** 36,76 35,00 34,59 53,13 53,13 41,76 -21,4% Jan-Dec 2023
± % Over the same period of the previous year -4,8% -1,2% +53,6%
Corn price (North West Iowa, IA) (€\Ton) 130,3 116,8 194,4 267,0 267,0 214,1 -19,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Soybeans price (Western Illinois, IL) (€\Ton) 295,5 320,0 450,1 571,4 571,4 506,8 -11,3% Jan-Dec 2023
DAIRY PRODUCTION 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Liquid milk 21.054 21.031 20.190
Butter 905 973 936 934 934 959 +2,7% Jan-Dec 2023
Cream Sour 646 663 677 678 678 685 +1,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Cheese 5.959 6.005 6.242 6.379 6.379 6.399 +0,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Italian Mozzarella 2.039 2.016 2.040 2.099 2.099 2.098 -0,1% Jan-Dec 2023
Cheddar 1.695 1.737 1.801 1.798 1.798 1.808 +0,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Americal Colby & Jack & Monterey 678 685 746 760 760 786 +3,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Cream & Neufchatel 424 459 465 513 513 511 -0,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Italian Parmesan & Similar 187 190 220 224 224 220 -2,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Italian Provolone & Similar 174 166 172 174 174 168 -3,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Hispanic 151 157 160 175 175 189 +7,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Swiss 153 147 150 159 159 152 -4,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Italian Ricotta & Similar 111 115 114 112 112 112 +0,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Muenster 89 85 87 87
Feta 59 62 77 64 64 67 +4,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Blue e Gorgonzola 43 33 40 42 42 38 -8,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Italian Romano & Similar 25 25 31 26 26 22 -13,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Gouda 22 20 26 28 28 28 +1,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Brick 0,9 0,7 0,9 0,7
Altri formaggi 107 107 114 117 117 110 -5,9% Jan- 2023
Cottage Cream 162 165 154 156 156 171 +9,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Cottage Curd 177 172 163 164 164 180 +9,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Cottage Lowfat 149 140 138 133 133 150 +12,7% Jan-Dec 2023
WMP (whole milk powder) 64 63 67 62 62 50 -19,9% Jan-Dec 2023
NDM (skimmed milk powder) 840 885 929 893 893 852 -4,6% Jan-Dec 2023
SMP (skimmed milk powder) 260 315 317 298 298 249 -16,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Whey powder 443 435 405 415 415 420 +1,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Condensed milk (Whole and Skimmed Canned Milk) 203 262 249 253
Lactose 556 508 509 504 504 498 -1,2% Jan-Dec 2023
WPC (Whey Protein Concentrate) 223 217 210 205 205 224 +9,3% Jan-Dec 2023
WPI 90 (Whey Protein Isolated) 54 51 59 59 59 52 -11,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Yogurt 1.986 2.046 2.152 2.097 2.097 2.159 +3,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Frozen Yogurt (Mio Litri) 215 133 153 173 173 173 +0,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Ice cream, regular, hard (Mio Litri) 2.685 2.903 2.726 2.751 2.751 2.708 -1,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Ice cream lowfat, total (Mio Litri) 1.794 1.752 1.808 1.690 1.690 1.591 -5,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Ice cream, lowfat, hard (Mio Litri) 902 949 865 828 828 839 +1,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Ice cream, lowfat, soft (Mio Litri) 892 803 943 861 861 752 -12,7% Jan-Dec 2023
Ice cream, nonfat, hard (Mio Litri) 26 21 25 28 28 31 +8,1% Jan-Dec 2023
EXPORT 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Bulk and pack. milk (HS 040110+040120)
TOP importers
106 106 120 120 120 102 -15,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Cream (HS 040130+040140+040150)
TOP importers
25 24 26 28 28 37 +32,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Condensed milk (HS 040291+040299)
TOP importers
18 11 16 20 20 22 +6,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Butter (HS 0405)
TOP importers
29 27 57 82 82 37 -54,5% Jan-Dec 2023
of which:
Anhydrous Milk Fat (HS 040590)
TOP importers
7,0 5,1 13 16 16 6,1 -62,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Cheese (HS 0406)
TOP importers
361 358 404 454 454 438 -3,4% Jan-Dec 2023
SMP (skimmed milk powder - HS 040210)
TOP importers
704 816 880 837 837 810 -3,3% Jan-Dec 2023
WMP (whole milk powder - HS 040221+040229)
TOP importers
39 39 39 39 39 26 -33,1% Jan-Dec 2023
Whey powder (HS 0404)
TOP importers
439 546 592 663 663 534 -19,5% Jan-Dec 2023
of which:
Sweet dairy Whey (12% protein) e WPC (HS 040410)
TOP importers
404 504 551 615 615 490 -20,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Casein (HS 350110)
TOP importers
1,9 1,9 1,8 2,1 2,1 1,1 -47,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Caseinates (HS 350190)
TOP importers
1,5 1,6 2,1 2,5 2,5 2,6 +3,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Lactose pharmaceutical (HS 170211)
TOP importers
293 304 322 413 413 436 +5,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Lactose edible (HS 170299)
TOP importers
85 75 69 40 40 37 -6,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Infant milk formula (HS 190110)
TOP importers
34 32 28 29 29 28 -3,7% Jan-Dec 2023
Yogurt e latticello (HS 0403)
TOP importers
17 37 41 41 41 48 +16,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Fat-Filled Milk Powder (FFMP) (HS 190190)
TOP importers
163 173 162 176 176 178 +1,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) (HS 350220)
TOP importers
48 59 65 65 65 76 +17,2% Jan-Dec 2023
IMPORT 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Bulk and pack. milk (HS 040110+040120)
TOP exporters
12 33 35 26 26 24 -8,1% Jan-Dec 2023
Cream (HS 040130+040140+040150)
TOP exporters
18 25 19 32 32 58 +80,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Condensed milk (HS 040291+040299)
TOP exporters
30 26 23 37 37 37 -0,7% Jan-Dec 2023
Butter (HS 0405)
TOP exporters
68 69 63 73 73 81 +10,8% Jan-Dec 2023
of which:
Anhydrous Milk Fat (HS 040590)
TOP exporters
24 27 14 21 21 19 -12,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Cheese (HS 0406)
TOP exporters
181 165 188 189 189 194 +2,4% Jan-Dec 2023
SMP (skimmed milk powder - HS 040210)
TOP exporters
0,5 0,7 0,4 0,6 0,6 0,8 +31,5% Jan-Dec 2023
WMP (whole milk powder - HS 040221+040229)
TOP exporters
14 23 12 16 16 14 -8,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Whey powder (HS 0404)
TOP exporters
91 84 84 79 79 81 +1,8% Jan-Dec 2023
of which:
Sweet dairy Whey (12% protein) e WPC (HS 040410)
TOP exporters
48 41 44 44 44 44 +1,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Casein (HS 350110)
TOP exporters
49 46 53 81 81 51 -36,2% Jan-Dec 2023
Caseinates (HS 350190)
TOP exporters
20 21 22 24 24 31 +27,1% Jan-Dec 2023
Lactose pharmaceutical (HS 170211)
TOP exporters
3,2 2,7 2,9 3,2 3,2 3,3 +2,4% Jan-Dec 2023
Lactose edible (HS 170299)
TOP exporters
0,3 0,5 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,8 +41,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Infant milk formula (HS 190110)
TOP exporters
3,3 9,3 17 42 42 40 -5,3% Jan-Dec 2023
Yogurt e latticello (HS 0403)
TOP exporters
26 25 27 35 35 41 +17,6% Jan-Dec 2023
Fat-Filled Milk Powder (FFMP) (HS 190190)
TOP exporters
175 195 230 255 255 252 -1,0% Jan-Dec 2023
Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) (HS 350220)
TOP exporters
14 8,5 14 11 11 9,9 -12,1% Jan-Dec 2023
STOCK (al 31 December) 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Butter 86 124 90 98 98 91 -7,8% Dec 2023
Cheese (no fresh cheese) 600 633 654 656 656 654 -0,2% Dec 2023
SMP Human Use 112 131 115 116 116 92 -20,5% Dec 2023
SMP Animal Use 5,7 3,9 2,7 3,7 3,7 2,9 -19,5% Dec 2023
WMP (Whole Milk Powder) 5,5 7,7 11 6,9 6,9 5,9 -14,0% Dec 2023
Condensed milk (Whole and Skimmed Canned Milk) 16 16 21 18
Whey Powder Human Use 32 29 25 31 31 30 -4,1% Dec 2023
Whey Powder Animal Use 0,4 0,3 0,3 0,6 0,6 1,8 +211,7% Dec 2023
WPC 30 29 31 37 37 29 -23,0% Dec 2023
I° Classification
- WPC Human Use 30 28 30 37 37 28 -24,0% Dec 2023
- WPC Animal Use 0,3 0,4 0,7 0,4 0,4 0,7 +59,4% Dec 2023
2° Classification
- WPC 25-49.9% s.s. 12 12 11 13 13 11 -14,4% Dec 2023
- WPC 50-89.9% s.s. 18 16 21 24 24 17 -27,8% Dec 2023
Lactose 50 56 76 78 78 48 -38,8% Dec 2023
DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION (Source: FAS-USDA) 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Cheese 5.751 5.745 5.964 6.055 6.055 6.106 +0,8% Jan-Dec 2023
Butter 940 978 981 924 924 1.004 +8,7% Jan-Dec 2023
SMP 422 384 374 366 366 324 -11,5% Jan-Dec 2023
WMP 36 34 33 40 40 33 -17,5% Jan-Dec 2023
PER CAPITA CONSUMPTIONS (kg) 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023 % Period
Cheese 17,20 17,10 17,70 17,90
Butter 2,81 2,91 2,91 2,73
SMP 1,26 1,14 1,11 1,08
WMP 0,11 0,10 0,10 0,12
% Self-sufficiency 100,1% 100,1% 100,1% 100,1% 100,1% Jan-Dec 2023
SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS 2019 2020 2021 2022 2022 2023(f) % Period
GDP (gross domestic product) 2,47% -2,21% 5,80% 1,94% 1,94% 2,46% Jan-Dic 2023
CPI (consumer price index) 1,81% 1,23% 4,70% 8,00% 8,00% 4,12% Jan-Dic 2023
Population ('000) 334.320 335.942 336.998 338.290
GDP per capita (U.S. dollars) 65.052 63.079 69.231 (e) 76.027 (e)
GDP per capita (€) * 58.106 55.189 58.535(e) 72.197(e)
(e) estimated
* Per capita GDP in Euro is calculated by using the yearly average exchange rate
(p): partial data
(f): forecast
** Fluid Grade
NOTE:Per capita consumptions are obtained dividing total consumption (Source FAS-USDA ) by the population (Source FAO)

Vedi Metric Conversion Factors
METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
1 Hectare = 2.4710 Acres; 1 Kilogram = 2.2046 Pounds
1 Metric Ton:=Domestic Unit*Factor
Wheat & Soybeans:=bushels*0.027216
Rice:=cwt*0.045359
Rapeseed & Sunflowerseed:=cwt*0.045359
Corn, Sorghum & Rye:=bushels*0.025401
Barley:=bushels*0.021772
Oats:=bushels*0.014515
Sugar:=short tons*0.907185
Cotton:=480-lb bales*0.217720
UK cwt: in UK CWT is "long hundred weight" (long is equivalent to gross) = 112 lbs, that equals to 50.8024 Kg.
USA cwt : in USA CWT is "short hundred weight" (short is equivalent to net)=100 lbs, that equals to 45.3592 Kg.

Source:
Raw material area: USDA, ERS; Cow's milk production: National Agricultural Statistics Service
Dairy production: National Agricultural Statistics Service and USDA
Export and Import: Census Bureau
Consumption: FAS-USDA
GDP and CPI: Intesa Sanpaolo
GDP per capita: International Monetary Found
Population: FAO
Note: Self-sufficiency rate = Milk deliveries/(Domestic use in milk equivalent ME)
Domestic use in milk equivalent (ME) = Milk deliveries + Import in ME - Export in ME
The Self-sufficiency rate does not consider the trade of FFMP (fat-filled milk powder) - HS 190190 and the infant milk formula.

Last update: 2024-02-22
US: Export on Production
Product 2020 2021 2022 Dec 2023 Jan-Dec 2023
Butter 2,8% 6,1% 8,8% 3,0% 3,9%
Cheese 6,0% 6,5% 7,1% 6,7% 6,8%
WMP 61,6% 58,4% 62,8% 34,7% 52,4%
SMP 72,0% 74,7% 73,3% 74,2% 73,6%
Whey 60,8% 66,9% 76,1% 57,5% 58,5%
Lactose 74,5% 76,8% 89,8% 89,8% 95,0%
NOTE:
SMP
: SMP+NDM Production, SMP (040210) Export Code
Whey: Whey + WPC (25% - 50%) Production, Whey (0404) Export Code
Lactose: Lactose Production, Lactose edible + pharmaceutical (170211+170219) Export Code
NOTE: Access to World Dairy Trade, which also contains the processing of Import / Export of the United States with MONTHLY UPDATES, is reserved for Supporters of CLAL.it