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Farm-gate milk prices, US

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On this page you will find the monthly average prices data for Farm-gate Milk price related to All Milk, Class II, Class III and Class IV, as recorded in the US.

All Milk prices, collected over the last three years, are listed in the table and in the two charts, both in € and in local currency.

The table and the two graphs below show the historical series of monthly average prices of All Milk expressed in local currency.

A comparative table and chart show the historical overview of All Milk prices in the United States, New Zealand and EU-28.

The final graph shows the differences between the prices of All Milk, Class II, Class III and Class IV.

N.B.:

In the U.S., the price of milk is linked to a classification price plan. The system groups the milk into divisions, classes and different prices, according to its intended use. Milk prices primarily refer to two large divisions:

- Fluid grade milk, which represents 97% of milk produced in the U.S. It is produced under stringent sanitary conditions and is intended for all dairy products;
- Manufacturing grade milk, which represents 3% of milk produced in the U.S., and can only be used for products derived from milk such as butter and powders.

Across this subdivision, there is another classification system in operation in the U.S. that is mainly targeted to specific destinations, which are characterised by different milk prices:

- Class I milk is for direct human consumption and is the most expensive.
- Class II milk is processed into fresh products such as yoghurt, sour cream, ice cream and frozen dessert products.
- Class III milk is used to make cheese.
- Class IV milk is used to produce butter and powders.

This is a particularly complicated regulating system in that it intertwines the intended use with the localization of the production.

The US dairy industry is regulated by the Federal Milk Marketing Order system, which includes 11 different geographical areas (or "orders").

In each of these orders, manufacturers are paid a (harmonised) average price for their milk depending on its intended use, which, in turn, is determined by the place of production.

In Wisconsin, for instance, the majority of milk belongs to Class III, i.e. milk intended for cheese production. In Florida, however, most of the milk produced belongs to Class I, i.e. milk for drinking. This milk is therefore deemed to be more valuable and, as such, carries a higher-than-average price.

Milk from farms located in areas where there is already excess production is often made into butter and powders that can be stored for future use. Meanwhile, farmers located in areas where milk supply is low can expect that their milk will go on to be processed into food products.

The State of California, which accounts for roughly 20% of all milk production in the U.S., has its own Federal Milk Order and is not part of the federal scheme. There are five classes and further classifications within this Californian system.


US - Monthly prices of farm-gate milk
All Milk *
US$/cwt - € per 100 Kg. (VAT not included)¹
Month 2018
US$/cwt
2018
€\100 Kg
2019
US$/cwt
2019
€\100 Kg
2020
US$/cwt
2020
€\100 Kg
± on prev. month
( US$/cwt )
± on 2019
( US$/cwt )
± on prev. month
( €\100 Kg )
± on 2019
( €\100 Kg )
January 16,20 29,28 16,60 32,06 19,60 38,93 -5,31% +18,07% -5,20% +21,43%
February 15,30 27,32 16,80 32,63 18,90 38,21 -3,57% +12,50% -1,84% +17,10%
March 15,60 27,88 17,60 34,32 18,00 35,87 -4,76% +2,27% -6,13% +4,50%
April 15,80 28,37 17,70 34,72 14,40 29,23 -20,00% -18,64% -18,52% -15,83%
May 16,20 30,24 18,00 35,48 13,60 (p) 27,50 (p) -5,56% -24,44% -5,90% -22,48%
June 16,30 30,77 18,10 35,33
July 15,50 29,24 18,70 36,75
August 16,10 30,73 18,90 37,45
September 16,90 31,96 19,30 38,67
October 17,50 33,60 20,00 39,89
November 17,20 33,36 21,10 42,09
December 16,60 32,15 20,70 41,06
Average Weighted Price 16,26 30,39 18,62 36,69 16,90 ** 33,95 **
Change (1) -7,8% -11,9% +14,5% +20,7% -2,5% +0,3%
** Avg Annual Price
1) change from the same period of previous year
(p) = provisional price
NOTE: *: Fat 3,7% p.p. avg.
¹ Including milk diverted to manufacturing. Before deductions for hauling. Includes quality, quantity, and other premiums. Excludes hauling subsidies.
1 cwt = 45,359 kg
Conversion in € is calculated using the average exchange rate of the reference month.

Source: AMS USDA Dairy Markets News
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$/CWT US
Monthly prices of farm-gate milk
All Milk Fat 3,7% p.p. avg.
2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 ± on prev.
month
± on
2019
January 16,10 16,10 17,60 16,10 18,90 16,20 16,60 19,60 -5,31% +18,07%
February 15,40 15,80 16,80 15,70 18,40 15,30 16,80 18,90 -3,57% +12,50%
March 15,50 14,80 16,60 15,30 17,30 15,60 17,60 18,00 -4,76% +2,27%
April 15,20 14,60 16,50 15,00 16,50 15,80 17,70 14,40 -20,00% -18,64%
May 14,70 15,00 16,70 14,50 16,70 16,20 18,00 13,60 (p) -5,56% -24,44%
June 14,40 15,40 16,90 14,80 17,30 16,30 18,10
July 14,80 15,90 16,70 16,10 17,20 15,50 18,70
August 14,80 16,70 16,70 17,10 18,10 16,10 18,90
September 15,30 17,70 17,50 17,30 17,90 16,90 19,30
October 15,50 18,60 17,70 16,60 18,10 17,50 20,00
November 15,10 18,00 18,20 17,60 18,20 17,20 21,10
December 14,80 16,80 17,30 18,80 17,20 16,60 20,70
AVG Weighted Price 15,13 16,26 17,09 16,23 17,63 16,26 18,62 16,90 **
Change (1) +22,1% +7,5% +5,1% -5,1% +8,7% -7,8% +14,5% -2,5%
Source: AMS USDA Dairy Markets News
1) change from the same period of previous year , except for years 2005, 2010, 2015, where the change is from the same period 5 years ago
** Avg Annual Price
(p) = provisional price
Nota: Conversion: 1 cwt = 45,359 kg
  = min price in the last 5 years
  = max price in the last 5 years
€/100 kg US
Farm-gate raw Milk*(2)
NEW ZEALAND/FONTERRA
Farm-gate raw Milk price*(2)
EU WEIGHTED AVERAGE
Farm-gate raw Milk
(excl. VAT, incl quality)
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 % on prev. month % on 2019 2020 % on prev. month % on 2019 2020 % on prev. month % on 2019
January 27,56 32,46 33,02 38,07 33,39 32,68 39,26 29,28 32,06 38,93 -5,20% +21,43% 33,91 +0,33% +13,07% 34,93 -1,30% -0,26%
February 30,85 29,51 32,18 40,19 32,63 31,20 38,12 27,32 32,63 38,21 -1,84% +17,10% 31,84 -6,10% +4,60% 34,99 +0,17% +0,14%
March 32,14 28,72 32,48 40,19 33,77 30,39 35,70 27,88 34,32 35,87 -6,13% +4,50% 31,19 -2,04% +2,06% 34,10 -2,54% -0,73%
April 29,92 28,12 33,00 40,38 33,75 29,16 33,92 28,37 34,72 29,23 -18,52% -15,83% 31,06 -0,42% +5,54% 33,25 -2,49% -3,17%
May 30,11 27,93 33,45 38,85 33,02 28,26 33,30 30,24 35,48 27,50 (p) -5,90% -22,48%
June 32,33 28,51 32,60 37,63 33,23 29,06 33,96 30,77 35,33
July 33,69 30,32 32,19 37,94 33,48 32,07 32,94 29,24 36,75
August 33,95 32,18 32,30 40,07 33,05 33,62 33,80 30,73 37,45
September 33,78 33,61 33,20 43,92 34,38 34,02 33,12 31,96 38,67
October 32,18 36,70 33,47 43,32 34,73 33,19 33,94 33,60 39,89
November 33,35 37,98 35,29 40,66 37,37 35,93 34,18 33,36 42,09
December 32,95 35,12 35,39 36,47 35,06 39,31 32,04 32,15 41,06
Average Weighted Price 31,89 31,69 33,21 39,78 33,98 32,37 34,51 30,39 36,69 33,95 ** 32,00** 34,32**
Change (1) +17,9% -0,6% +4,8% +19,8% -14,6% -4,7% +6,6% -11,9% +20,7% +0,3% +6,3% -1,0%
Source: AMS USDA Dairy Markets News
1) change from the same period of previous year
2) VAT not included
** Avg Annual Price
(p) = provisional price
*US: m.g. 3,7% p.p. media
*NZ: Data based on payout forecast, adjusted for 4.2% fat and 3.4% protein.
  = min price
  = max price
UK trade data for the period Jan - Apr 2020 are provisional