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Italy: Dairy Products Prices Overview

This page contains three tables:
  • the first table shows the prices of some Cheeses recorded over the last weeks;
  • the second table shows the monthly average prices of some Cheeses over the last two years;
  • the last table shows the yearly average prices of some Cheeses.
Within each table, it is possible to access a product's in-depth page by clicking on its name.
CHEESES: WEEKLY PRICES
Province Product Local Currency
Italy, Thiene Fresh Asiago (Aged 20 days) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Fresh Asiago (whole milk) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Soft Gorgonzola € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 'Riserva' 20 months or more € / Kg
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 10 months) € / Kg
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 14-16 months) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 15 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 16 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 60 - 90 days (out of salt) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 9 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Treviso Montasio (Aged 60 days) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) LDP € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 15 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Reggio Emilia Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months) € / Kg
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months) € / Kg
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 8 months) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Provolone Valpadana (Aged for up to 3 months) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Quartirolo Lombardo € / Kg
Italy, Milan Taleggio,fresh "fuori sale" product € / Kg
2019 - settimana n° 2018 - settimana n°
08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 52 51 50
n.q. - n.q. - n.q. - n.q. - n.q. - n.q. - - - - - - - 4,65 | 4,65 +1,09% 4,60 | 4,60 -
5,05 | 5,35 0,00% 5,05 | 5,35 +0,97% 5,00 | 5,30 0,00% 5,00 | 5,30 0,00% 5,00 | 5,30 +1,98% 4,90 | 5,20 0,00% 4,90 | 5,20 0,00% - - 4,90 | 5,20 0,00% 4,90 | 5,20 0,00% 4,90 | 5,20 0,00%
5,50 | 5,80 0,00% 5,50 | 5,80 +0,89% 5,45 | 5,75 +0,90% 5,40 | 5,70 0,00% 5,40 | 5,70 0,00% 5,40 | 5,70 +1,83% 5,30 | 5,60 0,00% - - 5,30 | 5,60 0,00% 5,30 | 5,60 0,00% 5,30 | 5,60 0,00%
8,75 | 9,05 +0,28% 8,70 | 9,05 +0,57% 8,65 | 9,00 0,00% 8,65 | 9,00 0,00% 8,65 | 9,00 +0,86% 8,55 | 8,95 +2,34% 8,35 | 8,75 +2,40% - - 8,15 | 8,55 +1,21% 8,05 | 8,45 +0,61% 8,00 | 8,40 +1,23%
7,85 | 8,05 +0,63% 7,80 | 8,00 0,00% 7,80 | 8,00 +1,28% 7,70 | 7,90 0,00% 7,70 | 7,90 +0,65% 7,65 | 7,85 +0,65% 7,60 | 7,80 +3,36% - - 7,35 | 7,55 +0,68% 7,30 | 7,50 +2,07% 7,15 | 7,35 +0,69%
8,45 | 8,60 +0,59% 8,40 | 8,55 0,00% 8,40 | 8,55 +1,19% 8,30 | 8,45 0,00% 8,30 | 8,45 +0,60% 8,25 | 8,40 +0,60% 8,20 | 8,35 +3,12% - - 7,95 | 8,10 +0,63% 7,90 | 8,05 +1,92% 7,75 | 7,90 +0,64%
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
8,35 | 8,55 +0,30% 8,30 | 8,55 +0,60% 8,25 | 8,50 0,00% 8,25 | 8,50 0,00% 8,25 | 8,50 +0,60% 8,20 | 8,45 +2,46% 8,00 | 8,25 +2,52% - - 7,80 | 8,05 +1,28% 7,70 | 7,95 +0,64% 7,65 | 7,90 +1,30%
6,50 | 6,65 +0,77% 6,45 | 6,60 +0,77% 6,40 | 6,55 0,00% 6,40 | 6,55 0,00% 6,40 | 6,55 +0,78% 6,35 | 6,50 +1,58% 6,25 | 6,40 +3,27% - - 6,05 | 6,20 +1,66% 5,95 | 6,10 +0,84% 5,90 | 6,05 +1,70%
7,85 | 7,95 +0,64% 7,80 | 7,90 +0,64% 7,75 | 7,85 0,00% 7,75 | 7,85 0,00% 7,75 | 7,85 +0,65% 7,70 | 7,80 +2,65% 7,50 | 7,60 +2,72% - - 7,30 | 7,40 +1,38% 7,20 | 7,30 +1,40% 7,10 | 7,20 +1,42%
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10,85 | 11,05 +0,46% 10,80 | 11,00 0,00% 10,80 | 11,00 0,00% 10,80 | 11,00 0,00% 10,80 | 11,00 +0,46% 10,75 | 10,95 +0,70% 10,70 | 10,85 +1,89% - - 10,50 | 10,65 +1,44% 10,35 | 10,50 +0,97% 10,25 | 10,40 +0,98%
- - 10,90 | 11,10 +0,23% 10,85 | 11,10 +0,46% 10,80 | 11,05 +0,23% 10,75 | 11,05 0,00% 10,75 | 11,05 +0,46% 10,70 | 11,00 +0,70% 10,65 | 10,90 0,00% 10,65 | 10,90 +0,94% 10,55 | 10,80 +1,43% 10,45 | 10,60 +1,45%
- - 11,30 | 11,40 +0,22% 11,25 | 11,40 +0,22% 11,20 | 11,40 +0,22% 11,15 | 11,40 0,00% 11,15 | 11,40 +0,45% 11,10 | 11,35 +0,45% 11,05 | 11,30 0,00% 11,05 | 11,30 +0,90% 10,95 | 11,20 +1,37% 10,85 | 11,00 +1,39%
- - 12,10 | 12,55 +0,20% 12,05 | 12,55 +0,20% 12,00 | 12,55 +0,20% 11,95 | 12,55 0,00% 11,95 | 12,55 +0,41% 11,90 | 12,50 +0,41% 11,85 | 12,45 0,00% 11,85 | 12,45 +0,83% 11,75 | 12,35 +1,26% 11,65 | 12,15 +1,28%
12,15 | 12,60 0,00% 12,15 | 12,60 0,00% 12,15 | 12,60 0,00% 12,15 | 12,60 0,00% 12,15 | 12,60 +0,41% 12,10 | 12,55 +0,41% 12,05 | 12,50 +0,82% - - 11,95 | 12,40 +1,25% 11,80 | 12,25 +0,42% 11,75 | 12,20 +1,05%
- - 12,85 | 13,35 +0,19% 12,80 | 13,35 +0,19% 12,75 | 13,35 +0,19% 12,70 | 13,35 0,00% 12,70 | 13,35 +0,39% 12,65 | 13,30 +0,39% 12,60 | 13,25 0,00% 12,60 | 13,25 +0,78% 12,50 | 13,15 +1,18% 12,40 | 12,95 +1,20%
13,05 | 13,65 0,00% 13,05 | 13,65 0,00% 13,05 | 13,65 0,00% 13,05 | 13,65 0,00% 13,05 | 13,65 +0,38% 13,00 | 13,60 +0,38% 12,95 | 13,55 +0,76% - - 12,85 | 13,45 +0,38% 12,80 | 13,40 +0,38% 12,75 | 13,35 +0,77%
12,65 | 13,15 +0,19% 12,60 | 13,15 0,00% 12,60 | 13,15 +0,19% 12,55 | 13,15 0,00% 12,55 | 13,15 +0,39% 12,50 | 13,10 +0,39% 12,45 | 13,05 +0,39% 12,40 | 13,00 +0,79% 12,30 | 12,90 +1,20% 12,20 | 12,70 +1,22% 12,05 | 12,55 +0,82%
- - 13,85 | 14,25 +0,18% 13,80 | 14,25 +0,18% 13,75 | 14,25 +0,18% 13,70 | 14,25 0,00% 13,70 | 14,25 +0,36% 13,65 | 14,20 +0,36% 13,60 | 14,15 0,00% 13,60 | 14,15 +0,73% 13,50 | 14,05 +1,10% 13,40 | 13,85 +1,11%
13,85 | 14,15 0,00% 13,85 | 14,15 0,00% 13,85 | 14,15 0,00% 13,85 | 14,15 0,00% 13,85 | 14,15 +0,36% 13,80 | 14,10 +0,36% 13,75 | 14,05 +0,72% - - 13,65 | 13,95 +0,36% 13,60 | 13,90 +0,36% 13,55 | 13,85 +0,74%
5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% 5,40 | 5,65 0,00% - - 5,40 | 5,65 -1,78% 5,50 | 5,75 0,00% 5,50 | 5,75 0,00%
- - - - - - - - 5,70 | 5,90 0,00% - - 5,70 | 5,90 0,00% - - - - 5,70 | 5,90 -1,69% 5,80 | 6,00 -1,67%
- - - - - - - - 6,20 | 6,50 0,00% - - 6,20 | 6,50 0,00% - - - - 6,20 | 6,50 -1,55% 6,30 | 6,60 -1,53%
5,65 | 5,80 0,00% 5,65 | 5,80 +0,88% 5,60 | 5,75 0,00% 5,60 | 5,75 0,00% 5,60 | 5,75 0,00% 5,60 | 5,75 +1,79% 5,50 | 5,65 0,00% - - 5,50 | 5,65 0,00% 5,50 | 5,65 0,00% 5,50 | 5,65 0,00%
4,80 | 5,00 0,00% 4,80 | 5,00 +1,03% 4,75 | 4,95 0,00% 4,75 | 4,95 0,00% 4,75 | 4,95 0,00% 4,75 | 4,95 +2,11% 4,65 | 4,85 0,00% - - 4,65 | 4,85 0,00% 4,65 | 4,85 0,00% 4,65 | 4,85 0,00%
4,55 | 4,75 0,00% 4,55 | 4,75 +1,09% 4,50 | 4,70 0,00% 4,50 | 4,70 0,00% 4,50 | 4,70 0,00% 4,50 | 4,70 +2,22% 4,40 | 4,60 0,00% - - 4,40 | 4,60 0,00% 4,40 | 4,60 +1,12% 4,35 | 4,55 0,00%
Last Update: 2019-02-21
NOTE: Quotations have a pre-determined frequency. If case of more than one quotation in the same week, the table shows the arithmetic mean.
SOURCES: Italy, Thiene: Thiene Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Mantua: Mantua Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Treviso: Treviso Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Parma: Parma Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Reggio Emilia: Reggio Emilia Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Cagliari: Consortium Commitee for the detection of prices in cooperation with Cagliari Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Milan: Milan Chamber of Commerce;
CHEESES: AVERAGE MONTHLY PRICES
Province Product Local currency
Italy, Thiene Fresh Asiago (Aged 20 days) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Fresh Asiago (whole milk) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Soft Gorgonzola € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 'Riserva' 20 months or more € / Kg
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 10 months) € / Kg
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 14-16 months) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 15 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 16 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 60 - 90 days (out of salt) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 9 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Treviso Montasio (Aged 60 days) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) LDP € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 15 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Reggio Emilia Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months) € / Kg
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months) € / Kg
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 8 months) € / Kg
Italy, Belluno Piave Mezzano (Aged 60 - 180 days) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Provolone Valpadana (Aged for up to 3 months) € / Kg
Italy, Milan Quartirolo Lombardo € / Kg
Italy, Milan Taleggio,fresh "fuori sale" product € / Kg
Italy, Belluno Trentingrana € / Kg
2019 2018
Feb ± on Feb '18 Jan Dec Nov Oct Sep Aug Jul Jun May Apr Mar Feb Jan
n.q. - n.q. 4,63 4,63 4,60 4,58 4,60 4,55 n.q. 4,58 4,55 4,61 4,69 4,72
5,18 +3,67% 5,10 5,05 5,05 5,05 4,95 4,95 4,95 4,95 4,95 4,95 4,95 5,00 5,00
5,63 +5,30% 5,53 5,45 5,41 5,36 5,30 5,30 5,30 5,30 5,30 5,30 5,30 5,35 5,35
8,87 +44,32% 8,74 8,23 7,86 7,58 7,32 7,20
7,92 +15,26% 7,76 7,33 6,92 6,61 6,25 6,10 6,14 6,25 6,24 6,15 6,10 6,14 6,29
8,49 +18,25% 8,34 7,90 7,55 7,28 6,89 6,69 6,86 6,98 6,97 6,88 6,83 6,87 7,02
- - - - - - - - 7,18 7,23 7,20 7,11 7,08 7,18 7,35
8,42 +35,75% 8,30 7,80 7,44 7,16 6,89 6,78
6,53 +9,48% 6,43 6,00 5,70 5,55 5,29 5,14 5,13 5,20 5,16 5,03 5,00 5,10 5,21
7,85 -20,61% 7,73 7,20 6,81 6,53 6,27 6,15 6,18 6,25 6,23 6,13 6,10 6,20 6,35
- - - - - 5,80 5,76 5,85 5,85 5,88 5,86 5,91 5,88 5,96 5,77
- - - - - - - - 9,95 9,95 9,95 9,95 9,95 9,89 9,83
10,92 +1,79% 10,86 10,39 10,01 9,87 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,75 9,69
10,97 -2,41% 10,86 10,59 10,11 9,92 9,79 9,75 9,75
11,33 -3,21% 11,24 10,99 10,51 10,32 10,23 10,15 10,15
12,30 +12,26% 12,21 11,96 11,48 11,18 11,04 10,82 10,69 10,63 10,63 10,63 10,63 10,56 10,53
12,38 +3,66% 12,34 12,01 11,59 11,29 11,13 10,88 10,74 10,73 10,73 10,73 10,73 10,73 10,66
13,08 +69,81% 12,99 12,74 12,26 11,95 11,81 11,59 11,45 11,31 11,30 11,30 11,30 11,24 11,20
13,35 +73,38% 13,31 13,06 12,64 12,36 12,15 11,90 11,75 11,70 11,70 11,70 11,70 11,70 11,64
12,88 +66,24% 12,79 12,39 12,03 11,79 11,67 11,46 11,26 10,98 10,98 10,98 10,98 10,96 10,95
14,03 +153,85% 13,94 13,69 13,21 12,90 12,76 12,54 12,36 12,08 12,00 12,00 12,00 11,94 11,90
14,00 +194,74% 13,96 13,71 13,36 13,17 13,05 12,80 12,67 n.q.
5,53 +27,01% 5,53 5,60 5,72 5,89 6,19 6,60 6,86 7,31 7,55 7,63 7,70 7,70 7,40
- - 5,80 5,90 6,08 6,16 6,38 6,75 7,03 7,38 7,65 7,70 7,70 7,70 7,39
- - 6,35 6,45 6,63 6,71 6,89 7,00 7,18 7,30
- - - - 7,88 7,90 7,85 7,88 7,85 7,80 7,80 7,80 7,78 7,75 7,78
5,71 0,00% 5,65 5,58 5,56 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,48 5,53 5,53
4,88 0,00% 4,83 4,75 4,75 4,71 4,70 4,70 4,70 4,70 4,70 4,70 4,70 4,75 4,75
4,63 0,00% 4,58 4,48 4,45 4,41 4,30 4,30 4,30 4,30 4,30 4,30 4,30 4,35 4,35
- - - - - 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33 9,33
Last Update: 2019-02-21

SOURCES: Italy, Thiene: Thiene Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Belluno: Belluno Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Mantua: Mantua Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Treviso: Treviso Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Parma: Parma Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Reggio Emilia: Reggio Emilia Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Cagliari: Consortium Commitee for the detection of prices in cooperation with Cagliari Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Milan: Milan Chamber of Commerce;
CHEESES: AVERAGE ANNUAL PRICES
Province Product Currency 2019 ± on '18 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
Italy, Thiene Fresh Asiago (Aged 20 days)   € / Kg   n.q. -100,0% 4,61 4,55 4,33 4,68 5,16 4,75 4,59 4,74
Italy, Milan Fresh Asiago (whole milk)   € / Kg   5,14 +3,0% 4,99 4,90 4,67 5,09 5,20 4,78 4,68 4,70
Italy, Milan Soft Gorgonzola   € / Kg   5,57 +4,4% 5,34 5,27 5,06 - - - - -
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 'Riserva' 20 months or more   € / Kg   8,79 +14,5% 7,68 - - - - - - -
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 10 months)   € / Kg   7,83 +22,8% 6,37 6,77 6,54 6,50 6,87 7,00 7,46 8,30
Italy, Mantua Grana Padano (Aged 14-16 months)   € / Kg   8,40 +19,0% 7,06 7,49 7,29 7,18 7,68 8,08 8,69 8,90
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 15 months or more)   € / Kg   - - 7,19 7,81 7,54 7,40 7,76 8,30 8,81 8,84
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 16 months or more)   € / Kg   8,35 +15,1% 7,26 - - - - - - -
Italy, Milan Grana Padano 60 - 90 days (out of salt)   € / Kg   6,47 +22,0% 5,30 5,60 5,33 5,21 5,52 5,51 5,82 6,63
Italy, Milan Grana Padano (Aged 9 months or more)   € / Kg   7,78 +22,0% 6,37 6,80 6,51 6,39 6,84 6,97 7,43 8,13
Italy, Treviso Montasio (Aged 60 days)   € / Kg   - - 5,85 5,81 5,65 6,25 6,20 5,73 5,73 5,70
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more)   € / Kg   - - 9,92 9,81 8,63 7,65 8,26 8,80 8,96 10,88
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more)   € / Kg   10,88 +10,7% 9,83 9,57 8,35 7,52 8,15 8,74 9,28 10,65
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 12 months or more) LDP   € / Kg   10,90 +9,2% 9,99 - - - - - - -
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 15 months or more)   € / Kg   11,28 +8,5% 10,39 - - - - - - -
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more)   € / Kg   12,25 +12,4% 10,89 10,48 9,23 8,28 9,01 9,92 - -
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 18 months or more)   € / Kg   12,35 +12,3% 11,00 10,47 9,33 8,69 9,40 10,37 10,92 11,62
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more)   € / Kg   13,03 +12,1% 11,62 11,09 9,76 8,82 9,61 10,51 11,22 12,33
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more)   € / Kg   13,33 +11,0% 12,01 11,29 10,08 9,47 10,17 11,13 11,72 12,17
Italy, Reggio Emilia Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 24 months or more)   € / Kg   12,83 +12,9% 11,36 10,88 9,76 8,94 9,66 10,56 11,49 12,12
Italy, Parma Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more)   € / Kg   13,98 +12,3% 12,45 11,81 10,53 10,17 10,96 11,71 - -
Italy, Milan Parmigiano Reggiano (Aged 30 months or more)   € / Kg   13,98 +6,1% 13,18 - - - - - - -
Italy, Milan Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months)   € / Kg   5,53 -19,2% 6,84 5,58 7,04 9,14 7,99 6,40 5,18 4,85
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 5 months)   € / Kg   5,80 -17,2% 7,00 5,87 7,37 8,91 n.q. - - -
Italy, Cagliari Pecorino Romano (Aged 8 months)   € / Kg   6,35 -7,0% 6,83 - - - - - - -
Italy, Belluno Piave Mezzano (Aged 60 - 180 days)   € / Kg   - - 7,82 7,77 7,80 7,87 7,87 7,64 7,41 7,11
Italy, Milan Provolone Valpadana (Aged for up to 3 months)   € / Kg   5,68 +3,2% 5,50 5,38 5,15 5,55 5,69 5,24 5,13 5,11
Italy, Milan Quartirolo Lombardo   € / Kg   4,85 +2,8% 4,72 4,67 4,47 4,86 4,97 4,79 4,70 4,68
Italy, Milan Taleggio,fresh "fuori sale" product   € / Kg   4,60 +5,8% 4,35 4,27 4,07 4,46 4,57 4,40 4,32 4,31
Italy, Belluno Trentingrana   € / Kg   - - 9,33 9,33 9,20 9,10 9,68 10,02 10,47 10,80
Last Update: 2019-02-21
SOURCES: Italy, Thiene: Thiene Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Milan: Milan Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Mantua: Mantua Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Treviso: Treviso Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Parma: Parma Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Reggio Emilia: Reggio Emilia Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Cagliari: Consortium Commitee for the detection of prices in cooperation with Cagliari Chamber of Commerce; Italy, Belluno: Belluno Chamber of Commerce;